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【8-Prenylnaringenin】Main Citrus Flavonoids with Antidiabetic Effects



8-prenylnaringenin is a prenylflavonoid, more specifically, a xanthohumol metabolite, found in the Citrus genus of plants belonging to the Rutaceae family and exclusively available in nominal concentrations in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and tangerines. Prenylflavonoids are a sub-class of the flavonoid group that represents a group of secondary metabolites derived from 2-phenylchromen-4-one and present a prenyl group attached to the flavone nucleus. Findings from previous studies reported that 8-prenylnaringenin had a protective effect on menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms, as well as exhibiting anticancer activities by the induction of autophagy or by modulating the cell cycle and suppressing the growth of tumor cells when tested in different types of in vitro experimental model systems. It reduced oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and the secretions of angiogenic factors. It also acted on vascularization processes, such as angiogenesis.

In an animal model (C57Bl/6 mice) of type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), Luís et al. showed that 8-prenylnaringenin normalized the expression of Galectin-3 (Gal3), a protein overexpressed during the diabetic state, and was strongly associated with oxidative stress in the liver and kidneys of diabetic mice. In addition, it reduced 3-nitrotyrosine (a marker of cell damage), inflammation, and nitric oxide (NO) production, and promoted the production of glycation end products (AGEs). Increased levels of AGEs in response to diabetic inflammation have been reported to play a role in tissue stiffness, increased blood pressure, heart failure, and endothelial dysfunction. This polyphenol may, therefore, be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes mellitus.

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